Figure English Name Category Definition Emphasis Notes
1 Allegory Allegory Illustration Continued comparison by representation or implication Points of comparison Allegory is broader term in Semitic languages than Western.
2 Anadiplosis Like Endings & Beginnings Repetition Repetition of the same word or words at the end of one sentence or clause and at the beginning of another. The repeated words
3 Anaeresis Detraction Parentheses A parenthetic addition complete in itself, a detraction by a negative expression. The positive opposite The negative appears to take something away but really is adding to it. Cf. Tapeinosis
4 Anaphora Like-Beginnings Repetition The repetition of the same word at the beginning of successive clauses or sentences The repeated word
5 Antanaclasis Word-Clashing Repetition Repetition of the same word in the same sentence, with different meanings Repeated words Homonym - same word has more than one usage.
6 Antonomasia Name Change Meaning Change of proper name for appellative or vice versa Name Description takes place of the literal name
7 Asyndeton No-Ands Grammar An enumeration of things without conjunctions. The whole unit Important to view the group as a whole unit. May have emphasis on last item in list.
8 Catachresis Incongruity Meaning One word changed for another only remotely connected with it. Correct meaning.
9 Cataploce Exclamation Parentheses A parenthetic addition complete in itself, a sudden exclamation. On the sentence before. E.g., "God forbid!" Exclamation differs from interjection because it usually involves an emotional response.
10 Climax Gradation Repetition Continuous anadiplosis - repetition of endings and beginnings of one sentence or clause. The build up of logic Each concept repeated is important to note and consider. E.g. II Peter 1:5
11 Epanadiplosis Encircling Repetition Repetition of the same word or words at the beginning and end of a sentence. Repeated word(s) Consider the sentences in between as a unit of thought.
12 Epistrophe Like Endings Repetition Repetition of the same word or words at the end of successive clauses or sentences. Repeated word(s) Often sets a structural pattern.
13 Epitrechon Remark (Running Along) Parentheses A parenthetic addition not complete in itself, used as an explanatory remark. Pause Read from before the parenthesis to after to complete the sentence.
14 Epizeugxis Duplication Repetition Repetition of the same word in immediate sucession. Repeated word Effect is to establish the word duplicated. E.g. Isaiah 26:3
15 Erotesis Interrogative Rhetoric The asking of questions without waiting for the answer. Answer The meaning must be gleaned by putting the question into a statement. Question always has an obvious answer.
16 Hendiadys Two for One Meaning Two words used, but one thing meant. The combination of concepts The words can be put together using one as an adjective, but more often are best described with a different word that combines the two ideas.
17 Homeopropheron Alliteration Repetition Repetition of the same letter or syllable at the commencement of successive words. What the syllable means If the alliteration is only a letter, the emphasis is on the words that have that letter.
18 Hypocatastasis Implication Illustration A declaration that implies the resemblance or representation, comparison by implication. What is compared In Semitic thinking, the parts of the body all represent something specific. Can take a metaphor and use the meaning without the verb "to be"
19 Hypotimesis Under-Estimating Parentheses A parenthetic addition complete in itself, an underevaluation, apology or excuse The opposite
20 Idioma Idiom Meaning The peculiar usage of words and phrases. The real meaning of phrase Idioms are particular to each language and culture.
21 Interjectio Interjection Parentheses A parenthetic addition complete in itself, thrown in between, exclamation What follows the exclamation
22 Metalepsis Double Metonymy Meaning Two metonymies, one contained in the other, but only one expressed The meaning underneath There are at least two steps to discover the meaning
23 Metaphor Representation Illustration A declaration that one thing is (or represents) another, or comparison by representation What is represented Usually has form of the verb "to be"
24 Metonymy Change of Noun Meaning The change of one noun for another related noun. The related noun Several categories: cause, effect, time, place
25 Parabola Parable Illustration Comparison by continued resemblance. Points of comparison Can be extended simile. There is often more than one point of comparison. Parable is a broader term in Semitic thinking than in Greek.
26 Paradiastole Neither-Nor Repetition Repetition of the disjunctives: neither, nor, either, or Words in between Consider each noun or phrase carefully.
27 Parembole Insertion Parentheses A parenthetic addition complete in itself - a digression. The parenthesis as a unit Context not needed or required to be understood
28 Polysyndeton Many-Ands Grammar The repetition of the word "and" at the beginning of successive clauses or sentences. Each connected noun or phrase Consider each word connected with "and" carefully.
29 Prosopopoeia Personification Illustration Things or ideas represented as persons. The thing or idea Human characteristics given to inanimate objects or abstract ideas. Can be an action that a person would do.
30 Repetitio Repetition Repetition Repetition of the same word or words irregularly in the same passage. Ties the passage together The repeated word is emphasized but often to just set the structural pattern.
31 Simile Resemblance Illustration A declaration that one thing resembles another, comparison by resemblance. That which is described Uses "like" or "as" in comparison. The meaning is understood more vividly and often more deeply because of the comparison.
32 Syncrisis Repeated Simile Illustration Repetition of a number of resemblances. The points of comparison Several similes linked together in close proximity
33 Synecdoche Transfer (or Part for Whole) Meaning The exchange of one idea for another associated idea. The implied idea Often a part is used for the whole.
34 Tapeinosis Demeaning Rhetoric A lessening of a thing in order to increase it. The true meaning Differs from meosis - the word(s) magnified are the same.
35 Meiosis Belittling Rhetoric A belittling of something in order to magnify something else. The true meaning Cf. Tapeinosis
36 Parenthesis Parenthesis Parentheses A parenthetic addition complete in itself, but needs context to be understood Explanation of previous sentence This is the true figure of parenthesis used as an explanation or description.
37 Paramegnon Derivation Repetition Repetition of words derived from same root: similar in sound but different in meaning The build up of concept Usually different nouns or verbs formed from same root but which have distinct meanings of their own.
38 Homeoteleuton Like Endings Repetition Repetition of successive words ending with same letters or syllables Repeated word(s)
39 Homeoptoton Like Inflections Repetition Repetition of like inflections Words with repeated endings
40 Paromoesis Assimilation Repetition Repetition of inflections similar in sound Words with repeated inflections
41 Epanalepsis Resumption Repetition Repetition of word or phrase after any kind of parenthesis or digression Marks return to a previous subject
42 Hendiatris Three for One Meaning Three words used, one thing meant The combination of concepts
43 Ellipsis Omission Rhetoric Words omitted from a sentence or phrase that are necessary to complete the grammar, but not the sense The omitted word
44 Paroemia Proverb Rhetoric A saying, a trite expression, common remark, maxim The moral lesson implied These are culturally related and it is important to understand the manners or customs behind the saying
45 Enigma Dark Saying Rhetoric A dark or obscure saying, a puzzling statement, riddle The truth behind the statement Often the saying is not explained
46 Eironeia Irony Meaning The expression of thought in a form that naturally conveys the opposite The opposite meaning Can be sarcastic, but more often is only obviously the opposite.
47 Oxymoron Wise-Folly Rhetoric A wise saying that seems foolish The wisdom or lesson implied Some proverbs utilize this figure
48 Apostrophe Aside Rhetoric A turning aside from the direct subject matter to address others Points to specific group The group addressed needs to take special note
49 Heterosis Exchange Meaning Exchange of one accidence of part of speech for another The correct form This is especially used with verb tenses.
50 Hypallage Interchange Meaning An interchange of construction whereby a word is grammatically related with another
In a genitive phrase the first noun is interchanged as an adjective.
51 Hyperbole Exaggeration Meaning When more is said than is literally meant. The literal meaning
52 Anabasis Gradual Ascent Rhetoric An increase of sense in successive sentences. The logic of the sentences
53 Catabasis Gradual Descent Rhetoric A decrease of sense in successive sentences. The logic of the sentences
54 Merismos Distribution Meaning An enumeration of the parts of a whole that has been mentioned The whole E.g. "morning and evening" means the whole day
55 Synathroesmos Enumeration Meaning An enumeration of the parts of a whole that has not been mentioned The whole Cf. Merismos
56 Epanados Inversion Repetition Repetition of different words in a sentence, in an inverse order (but same sense) Repeated words Contributes to understanding of the structure of a passage.
57 Paranomasia Rhyming Words Repetition Repetition of words similar in sound, but not in sense or origin. The concepts that rhyme
58 Polyptoton Many Inflections Repetition Repetition of the same noun or verb in different conjugations or inflections. The root verb Can be verb with related noun/adjective. Common in Semitic languages.
59 Synonymia Synonym Meaning Repetition of words different in sound and origin, but similar in meaning The repeated concept Common in English and Western languages.
60 Repeated Negation Many No's Repetition Repetition of two or more negatives The negative Can be combination of negative verb with another negative conjunction.
61 Euphemismos Ephemism Meaning Change of what is unpleasant for pleasant The reality of what is meant
62 Hyperbaton Transposition Grammar The placing of a word out of its usual order in a sentence. The word out of place Often used with an adjective or pronoun.
63 Anthropopatheia Condescension Meaning The ascribing of human attributes to God The action or picture described Hebrew name is "Derech Benai Adam", the way of the sons of man.
64 Epibole Overlaid Repetition Repetition Repetition of the same phrase at irregular intervals. The repeated phrase Differs from anaphora and repetitio by being a phrase not just one word.

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