Figures of Speech
This Is Appendix
6 From The Companion Bible.
is most important to notice these. It is absolutely necessary for true
interpretation. God's Word is made up of "words which the Holy Spirit
Figures of Speech Used in the Bible:
Baker Book House; Grand Rapids, Michigan.
A "Figure of speech" relates
to the form in which the words are used. It consists in the fact
that a word or words are used out of their ordinary sense, or place, or manner,
for the purpose of attracting our attention to what is thus said. A Figure of
speech is a designed and legitimate departure from the laws of language, in
order to emphasise what is said. Hence in such Figures we have the Holy Spirit's
own marking, so to speak, of His own words.
This peculiar form or unusal manner may not be true,
or so true, to the literal meaning of the words; but it is more
true to their real sense, and truer to the truth.
Figures are never used but for the sake of emphasis.
They can never, therefore, be ignored. Ingnorance of Figures of speech has led
to the grossest errors, which have been caused either from taking literally what
is figurative, or from taking figuratively what is literal.
The Greeks and Romans named some hundreds of such
figures. The only work on Biblical Figures of speech in the
English language is by Dr. Bullinger 1,
from which we have taken the whole of information given here as well as in the
marginal notes. He has classified some 217 seperate figures (some of them with
many varieties or subdivisions), and has given over 8,000 illustrations.
In Genesis 3:14,15.
we have some of the earlist examples. By interpreting these figures literally as
meaning "belly", "dust", "heel",
"head", we lose the volumes of precious and mysterious
truth which they convay and intensify. It is the truth whish is
literal, while the words employed are figurative. (See
under Appendix 19)
In the marginal notes will be found the names of most
of these figures; and we append a list with their pronunciation and English
definitions (giving one or more references as examples).
So named because it is an apparent or assumed refusal.
Ac-ro'-stichion; or, Acrostic
(Psalm 119). Repetition of the same or successive letters at the
beginnings of words or clauses.
Æ-nig'-ma; or, Dark Saying
A truth expressed in obscure language.
Æ'-ti-o-log'-ia; or Cause Shown
Rendering a reason for what is said or done.
Affirmatio; or, Affirmation
Emphasising words to affirm what no one has disputed.
Ag'-an-ac-te'-sis; or Indignation
An expression of feeling by way of indignation.
Al'-le-go-ry; or, Continued Comparison by Reprensentation (Metaphor)
and Implication (Hypocatastasis) (Matthew 7:3-5).
Teaching a truth about one thing by substituting another for it which is
Am-oe-bae'-on; or, Refrain
(Psalm 136). The repetition of the same phrase at the end successive
Am'-phi-di-or-tho'-sis; or, Double Correction
A correction setting right both hearer and speaker.
Am'-pli-a'-tio; or, Adjournment
A retaining of an old name after the reason for it has passed away.
An-ab'-a-sis; or, Gradual Ascent
An increase of emphasis or sense in successive sentences.
An-acho'-re-sis; or, Regression
A return to the original subject after a digression.
An'-a-coe-no-sis; or, Common Cause
An appeal to others as having interests in common.
An'-a-co-lu'-thon; or, Non-Sequence
A breaking off the sequence of thought.
An'-a-di-plo'-sis; or, Like Sentence Endings and Beginnings
The word or words concluding one sentence are repeated at the beginning of
An'-a-mne'-sis; or, Recalling
An expression of feeling by way of recalling to mind.
An-a'-pho-ra; or, Like Sentence Beginnings
The repetition of the same word at the beginning of successive sentences.
An-a'-stro-phe; or, Arraignment
The position of one word changed, so as to be out of its proper or usaul place
in a sentence.
An'-e-sis; or Abating
The addition of a concluding sentence which diminishes the effect of what has
Ant-eis'-a-go-ge; or, Counter Question
The answering of one quetion by asking another.
An-throp'-o-path-ei'-a; or, Condescension
Ascribing to God what belongs to human and rational beings, irrational
creatures, or inanimate things.
Ant-i-cat'-e-gor'-ia; or, Tu Quoque
Retorting upon another the very insinuation or accusation he has made against
Ant'-i-me'-rei-a; or, Exchange of Parts of Speech.
- Ac-cis'-mus ; or, Apparent Refusal
- (Matthew 15:
Of the Adverb. The Adverb used instead of some other part of speech
Of the Adjective. The Adjective used instead of some other part of
speech (Genesis 1:9.
Of the Noun. The Noun used instead of some other part of speech
Ant-i-me-tab'-o-le; or, Counterchange
A word or words repeated in a revers order, with the object of opposing them
to one another.
Ant-i-met-a-the'-sis; or, Dialogue
A transference of speakers; as when the reader is addressed as if actually
Ant-i'-phras-is; or, Permutation
The use of a word or phrase in a sense opposite to its original signification.
Ant'-i-pros-o'-po-poe-i-a; or Anti-Personification
Persons represented as inanimate things.
Ant'-i-ptos'-is; or, Exchange of Cases
compare to 1Peter
One Case is put for another Case, the governing Noun being used as the
Adjective instead of the Noun in regimen.
Ant-i'-stro-phe; or, Retort
Turning the words of a speaker against himself.
Ant-i'-thes-is; or, Contrast
A setting of one phrase in contrast with another.
Ant'-o-no-ma'-si-a or, Name Change
The putting of a proper name for a Appellative or common Noun, or the reverse.
Aph-aer'-e-sis; or, Front Cut
The cutting off of a letter or syllable from the beginning of a word.
Ap'-o-di-ox'-is; or, Detestation
An expression of feeling by way of destestation.
Ap-o'-phas-is; or, Insinuation
When, professing to suppress certain matters, the writer adds the insinuation
A-po'-ria; or, Doubt
An expression of feeling by way of doubt.
Ap-o-si-opes'-is; or, Sudden Silence
It may be associated with:-
- Of the Verb. The Verb used istead of some other part of speech
Anger and threatening (Genesis 3:22).
Grief and complaint (Genesis 25:22.
Inquiry and deprecation (John 6:62).
Ap-o'-stro-phe; or, Apostrophe
When the speaker turns away from the real auditory whom he is addressing
to speak to another, who may be-
- Some great promise (Exodus 32:
Animals (Joel 2:22).
Inanimate things (Jeremiah 47:6).
Association; or, Inclusion
When the speaker associates himself with those whom he addresses, or of whom
As'-ter-is'-mos; or, Indicating
Employing some word which directs special attention to some paticular point or
A-syn'-de-ton; or, No-Ands
The usual conjunction is omitted, so that the point to be emphasised may be
quickly reached and ended with an emphatic climax (compare to Polysyndeton,
and Luke 14:21).
Bat-to-log'-i-a; or, Vain Repetition
Not used by the Holy Spirit: only by man.
Ben'-e-dic'-ti-o; or, Blessing
An expression of feeling by way of benediction or blessing.
Bra-chy'-lo-gi-a; or, Brachyology
A special form of Ellipsis (Genesis 25:32).
See Ellipsis I.3.
Cat-a'-bas-is; or, Gradual Descent
The opposite of Anabasis. Used to emphasise humiliation, sorrow, etc.
Cat'-a-chres-is; or, Incongruity
One word used for another, contrary to the ordinary usage and meaning of
- God (Nehemiah 6:
Of two words, where the meanings are different (Exodus 5:21).
Of one word, where the Greek receives its real meaning by permutation
from another language (Genesis 1:5.
Cat'-a-ploc'-e; or, Sudden Exclamation
This name is given to a parenthesis when it takes the form of a sudden
Chleu-as'-mos; or, Mocking
An expression of feeling by mocking and jeering.
Chron'-o-graph'-i-a; or, Description of Time
The teaching of something important by mentioning the time of an occurrence.
Climax; or, Gradation
Anadiplosis repeated in successive sentences (see "Anadiplosis",
Coe'-no-tes; or, Combined Repetition
The repetition of two different phrases, one at the beginning, and the other
at the end of successive paragraphs.
This term is applied to repetition of a subject or subjects, which
reappear in varying order, thus determing the "Structure"
of any portion of the Sacred Text. This Correspondence is found in the
- Of two words, where the meanings are remotely akin (Leviticus 26:
Repeated. Where there are more than two series of subjects, either
consisting of two members each (Psalm 26. Psalm 145.), or consisting
of more than two members each (Psalm 24).
Introverted. Where the first subject of the one series of members
corresponds with the last subject of the second (Genesis 43:3-5.
Complex or Combined. Where both Alternation and Introversion are
combined together in various ways (Exodus 20:8-11.
Cy-clo-id'-es; or, Circular Repetition
The repetition of the same phrase at regular intervals.
De'-i-sis; or, Adjuration
An expression of feeling by oath or asseveration.
Dep-re-ca'-ti-o; or, Deprecation
An expression of feeling by the way of deprecation.
Di'-a-log-is-mos; or, Dialogue
When one or more persons are represented as speaking about a thing, instead of
saying it oneself.
Di'-a-syrm-os; or, Raillery
Tearing away disguise, and showing up a matter as it really is.
Di-ex'-od-os; or, Expansion
A lengthening out by copious exposition of facts.
Ec'-pho-ne'-sis; or, Exclamation
An outburst of words, prompted by emotion.
Ei'-ron-ei-a; or, Irony.
The expression of thought in a form that naturally conveys its opposite.
- Alternate. Where the subjects of the alternate members correspond with
each other, either by way of similarity or contrast.
- Extended. Where there are two series, but each consisting of
several members (Psalm 72:
Human Irony. Where the speaker is a human being ( Job 12:2).
Peirastic Irony. By way of trying or testing (Genesis 22:2).
Simulated Irony. Where the words are used by man in dissimulation
Deceptive Irony. Where words are clearly false as well as hypocritical
E-jac'-u-la'-ti-o; or, Ejaculation
A parenthesis which consists of a short wish or prayer.
El-eu'-ther-i'-a; or, Candour
The speaker, without intending offence, speaks with perfect freedom and
El-lips'-is; or, Omission
When a gap is purposely left in a sentence through the omissiion of some
word or words.
- Divine Irony. Where the speaker is Divine (Genesis 3:
Verbs and participles (Genesis 26:7.
Certain connected words in the same member of a passage (Genesis
A whole clause in a connected passage (Genesis 30:27.
- Absolute Ellipsis. Where the omitted word or words are to be supplied
from the nature of the subject.
- Noun and Pronouns (Genesis 14:
Where the omitted word is to be supplied from a related or
contrary word (Genesis 33:10.
Where the omitted word is to be supplied from analogous or related
words (Genesis 50:23.
Where the omitted word is contained in another word, the one word
comprising the two significations (Genesis 43:33).
Ellipsis of Repitition.
- Where the omitted word is to be supplied from a cognate word in
the context (Psalm 76:
Complex; where the two clauses are mutually involed, and the
Ellipsis in the former clause is to be supplied from the latter;
and, at the same time, an Ellipsis in the latter clause it be
supplied from the former (Hebrews 12:20).
E-nan-ti-o'-sis; or, Contraries
Affirmatation or negation by contraries.
En'-thy-me-ma; or, Omission of Premiss
Where the conclusion is stated, and one or both of the premisses are omitted.
Ep-i-dip'-lo-sis; or, Double Encircling
Repeated Epanadiplosis (see below).
Ep'-an-a-di-plo'-sis; or, Encircling
The repetition of the same word or words at the beginning and end of a
Ep'-an-a-leps'is; or, Resumption
The repetition of the same word after a break or parenthesis.
Ep-an'-od-os; or, Inversion
The repetition of the same word or words in an inverse order, the sense being
Ep'-an-or-tho-sis; or, Correction
A recalling of what has been said in order to substitute something stronger in
Ep-i'-bo-le; or, Overlaid Repetition
The repetition of the same phrase at irregular intervals.
Ep'-i-cri'-sis; or, Judgement
A short sentence added at the end by way of an additional conclusion.
Ep'-i-mo-ne; or, Lingering
Repetition in order to dwell upon, for the sake of impressing.
Ep'-i-pho-ne'-ma; or, Exclamation
An exclamation at the conclusion of a sentence.
Ep-i'-pho-za; or, Epistrophe in Argument
The repetition of the same word or words at the end of successive sentences
used in argument.
Ep-i-stro-phe; or, Like Sentence-Endings
The repetition of the same word or words at the end of successive sentences.
Ep-i'-ta-sis; or, Amplification
Where a concluding sentence is added by way of increasing the emphasis.
Ep'-i-ther-a-pei'-a; or, Qualification
A sentence added at the end to heal, soften, mitigate, or modify what has been
Ep-i'-the-ton; or, Epithet
The naming of a thing by describing it.
Ep'-i-ti-me'-sis; or, Reprimand
An expression of feeling by way of censure, reproof, or reproach.
Ep'i-tre-chon; or, Running Along
A sentence, not complete in itself, thrown in as an explanatory remark. A form
of Parenthesis (see below).
Ep'-i-troch-as'-mos; or Summarising
A running lightly over by way of summary.
Ep-i'-trop-e; or, Admission
Admission of wrong, in order to gain what is right.
Ep'-i-zeux'-is; or, Duplication
The repetition of the same word in the same sense.
Er'-o-te-sis; or, Interrogating
The asking of questions, not for information, or for an answer. Such questions
may be asked (1) in positive affirmation, (2) in negative affirmation, (3) in
afffirmative negation, (4) in demonstration, (5) in wonder and admiration, (6)
in rapture, (7) in wishes, (8) in refusals and denials, (9) in doubts, (10) in
admonition, (11), in expostulation, (12) in prohibition or dissuasion, (13) in
pity and commiseration, (14) in disparagement, (15) in reproaches, (16) in
lamentation, (17) in indignation, (18) in absurdities and impossibilities,
(19) double questions.
Eth'-o-poe'-i-a; or, Description of Manners
A description of a person's peculiarities as to manners, caprices, habits,
Eu'-che; or, Prayer
An expression of feeling by way of prayer,curse, or imprecation.
Eu'-phem-is'-mos; or, Euphemy
Where a pleasing expression is used for one that is unpleasant.
Exemplum ; or, Example
Concluding a sentence by employing an example.
Ex-er-gas'-i-a; or Working Out
A repetition so as to work out or illustrate what has already been said.
Ex'-ou-then-is'-mos; or, Contempt
An expression of feeling by way of contempt.
Gno'-me; or, Quotation
The citation of a well-known saying without quoting the author's name.
- Simple; where the Ellipsis is to be supplied from a preceding or a
succeding clause (Genesis 1:
Where the original sense is modified in the quotation or reference
Where the sense is quite different from that which was first intended
Where the words are from the Hebrew or from the Septuagint (Luke 4:18).
Where the words are varied by omission, addition, or transposition (1Corinthians
Where the words are changed by a reading, or an inference, or in
number, person, mood, or tense. (Matthew 4:7).
Where two or more citations are amalgamated (Matthew 21:13).
Where Quotations are from books other than the Bible (Acts 17:28).
Hen-di'-a-dys; or, Two for One
Two words used, but one thing meant.
Hen-di'-a-tris; or, Three for One
Three words used, but one thing meant.
Her-men'-ei-a; or, Interpretation
An explanation immediately following a statement to make it more clear.
Het'-er-o'-sis; or, Exchange of Accidence.
Exchange of one voice, mood, tense, person, number, degree, or gender for
- Where the sense originally intended is preserved, though the words may
vary (Matthew 26:
Of moods (Genesis 20:7.
Of tenses (Genesis 23:11.
Of persons (Genesis 29:27.
Of adjectives (degree) and adverbs (2Timothy
Of nouns (number), adjectives, and pronouns (Genesis 3:8.
Ho-moe-o'-pto-ton; or, Like Inflections
Similar endings arising from the same inflection of verbs, nouns, etc. . This
figure belongs peculiarly to the original languages.
He-moe-o-pro'-pher-on; or, Alliteration
(Judges 5). The repetiton of the same letter or syllable at commencement
of successive words.
Heo'-moe-o-tel-eu'-ton; or, Like Endings
The repetition of the same letters or syllables at the end of successive
words. Used also of an omision in the text caused by such-like endings: the
scribe's eye going back to the latter of such similar words, instead of the
former. See Joshua 2:1.
Hyp-al'-la-ge; or, Interchange
A word logically belonging to one connection is grammatically united with
Hyp-er'bat-on; or, Transposition
The placing of a word out of its usual order in a sentence.
Hy-per'-bo-le; or Exaggeration
When more is said than is literally meant.
Hy'-po-cat-as'-ta-sis; or, Implication
An implied resemblance or representation.
Hy-po-ti-me'-sis; or, Under Estimating
Parenthetic addition by way of apology or excuse.
Hy'-po-ty-po'-sis; or, Word Picture
Representation of objects or actions by words.
Hys'-ter-e-sis; or, Subsequent Narration
When later record gives supplemental or new particulars, not inserted in the
Hys'-ter-o-log'-ia; or, The First Last
(Genesis 10 and 11. 2Samuel
24). A prior mention of a subsequent event.
Id-i-o'-ma; or, Idiom
The peculiar usage of words and phrases, as illustrated in the language
peculiar to one nation or tribe, as opposed to other languages or dialects.
- Of forms and voices (
Special idiomatic usages of nouns and verbs (Genesis 33:11.
Idiomatic degrees of comparison (Luke 22:15).
Idiomatic use of prepositions (Luke 22:49).
Idiomatic use of numerals (Psalm 103:2).
Idsiomatic forms of quotations (Psalm 109:5).
Idiomatic forms of question (Luke 22:49).
Idiomatic phrases (Genesis 6:2,
Idioms arising from other figures of speech (see notes in margin).
Chages of usage of words in the Greek language (Genesis 43:18.
Changes of usage of words in the English language (Genesis 24:21.
In'-ter-jec'-ti-o; or, Interjection
Parenthetic addition by way of feeling.
Mal'-e-dic'-ti-o; or, Imprecation
Expression of feeling by way of malediction and execration.
Mei-o'-sis; or a Belittleing
A belittleing of one thing to magnify another.
Me-ris'-mos; or, Distribution
An enumeration of the parts of a whole which has been just previously
Mes-ar-chi'-a; or, Beginning and Middle Repetition
The repetition of the same word or words at the beginning and middle of
Mes-o-di-plo'-sis; or, Middle Repetition
The repetition of the same word or words in the middle of successive
Mes-o-tel-eu'-ton; or, Middle and End Repetition
The repetition of the same word or words in the middle and at the end of
Met-a'-bas-is-; or, Transition
A passing from one subject to another.
Met'-a-lep'-sis; or, Double Metonymy
Two metonymies, one contained in the other, but only one expressed.
Met-al'-la-ge; or, a Changing Over
A different subject of thought substituted for the original subject.
Met'-a-phor' or, Representation
A declaration that one thing is (or represents) another: while
Simile resembles it, and Hypocatastasis implies
Met-a-sta-sis; or, Counter-Blame
A transferring of the blame from one's self to another.
Met-o'-ny-my; or, Change of Noun
When one name or noun is used instead of another, to which it stands in a
- Idiomatic usage of verbs (Genesis 42:
Of the Effect. When the effect is put for the cause producing it
Of the Subject. When the subject is put for something pertaining to it
Of the Adjunct. When something pertaining to the subject is put for
the subject itself (Genesis 28:22.
Mi-me-sis; or, Description of Sayings
Used when the sayings and etc., of another are described or imitated by way of
Neg-a'-ti-o; or, Negattion
A denial of that which has not been affirmed.
Oe'-on-is'-mos; or, Wishing
An expression of feeling by way of wishing or hoping for a thing.
Ox'-y-mor-on; or Wise-Folly
A wise saying that seems foolish.
Pae-sn'-si'-mos; or, Exultation
Calling on others to rejioce over something.
Pal'-in-od'-i-a; or, Retracting
Approval of one thing after reproving for another thing.
Par-a-bol-a; or, Parable i.e., Continued Simile
Comparison by continued resemblance.
Par'-a-di-a'-stol-e; or, Neithers and Nors
The repetition of the disjunctives niether and nor, or, either and or.
Par'-ae-net'-ic-on; or, Exhortation
2). An expression of feeling by way of exhortation.
Par-a-leips-is; or, a Passing By
When a wish is expressed to pass by a subject, which is, notwithstanding,
briefly alluded by subsequently.
Parallelism; or Parallel Lines
The repetition of similar, synonymous, or opposite thoughts or words in
parallel or successive lines. Compare to "Correspondence".
- Of the Cause. When the cause is put for the effect (Genesis 23:
Simple antithetic, or opposite. When the words are
contrasted in the two or more lines, being opposed in sense the one to
the other (Proverbs 10:1).
Simple synthetic, or constructive. When the parallelism
consists only in the similar form of construction (Psalm 19:7-9).
Complex alternate. When the lines are placed alternately
Complex repeated alternation. The repetition of two
parallel subjects in several lines (Isaiah 65:21,22).
Complex extended alternation. Alternation extended so as
to consist of three or more lines (Judges 10:17).
Complex introversion. When the parallel lines are so
placed that the first corresponds with the last, the second with the
last but one, etc. (Genesis 3:19.
Par-ec'-bas-is; or, Digression
A temporary turning aside from one subject to another.
Par-e-che'-sis; or, Foreign Paronomasia
The repetition of words similar in sound, but different in language.
Par-eg'-men-on; or, Derivation
The repetition of words derived from the same root.
Par-em'-bol'-e; or, Insertion
Inseration of a sentence between others which is independent and complete in
Par-en'-the-sis; or, Parenthesis
Insertion of a word or sentence, parenthetically, which is necessary to
explain the context.
Par-oe'-mi-a; or Proverb
A wayside-saying in common use.
Par'-o-moe-o'-sis; or, Like-Sounding Inflections
The repetition of inflections similar in sound.
Par-o-no-ma'-si-a: or, Rhyming Words
The repetition of words similar in sound, but not necessarily in sense.
Path'-o-poe'-i-a; or, Pathos
The expression of feeling or emotion.
Per-i'-phras-is; or, Circumlocution
When a description is used instead of the name.
Per-i'-stas-is;or, Description of Circumstances
Ple'-on-asm; or, Redundancy
Where what is said is, immediately after, put in another or opposite way
to make it impossible for the sense to be missed.
- Simple synonymous, or gradational. When
the lines are parallel in thought, and in the use of synonymous words
The Figure may affect (1) words (Genesis 16:8);
or (2) sentences (Genesis 1:20.
Plok'-e; or, Word-Folding
The repetition of the same word in a different sense, implying more than the
first use of it.
Po-ly-o-ny'-mi-a; or, Many Names
Persons or places mentioned under different names.
Po-ly-pto'-ton; or, Many Inflections
The repetition of the same part of speech in different inflections.
Nouns and pronouns (Genesis 9:25.
Po'ly-syn'de-ton; or, Many Ands
The repetition of the word "and" at the beginning of successive
clauses, each independent, important, and emphatic, with no climax at the end
(Compare Aysndeton and Luke 14:13).
Prag'-mato-graph-i-a; or Description of Actions
Pro-ec'-the-sis; or Justification
A sentence added at the end by way of justification.
Pro-lep's-is, (Ampliatio); or, Anticipation
Anticipating what is going to be, and speaking of future things as present.
Pro-lep's-is, (Occupatio); or, Anticipation.
Answering an argument by anticipating it before it is used.
- Verbs (Genesis 50:
Closed. When the anticipated objection is either not plainly stated or
not answered (Romans 10:18).
Pros-a-po'-do-sis; or, Detailing
A return to previous words or subjects for purposes of definition or
Pros'-o-po-graph'-i-a; or, Description of Persons
A vivid description of a person by detailed delineation.
Pros'-o-po-poe'-i-a; or, Personification
Things represented as persons.
- Open. When the anticipated objection is both answered and stated
Animals (Genesis 9:5.
The products of the earth (Nahum 1:4).
Inanimate things (Genesis 4:10).
Kingdoms, countries, and states (Psalm 45:12).
Human actions, etc., attributed to things, etc. (Genesis 18:20.
Pro'-ther-a-pei'-a; or, Conciliation
Conciliating others, by way of precaution, because of something we are about
Pro'-ti-me-sis; or, Description of Order
The enumeration of things according to their places of honour or importance.
Repeated Negation; or Many Noes
The repetition of divers negatives.
Repetitio; or, Repetition
Repetition of the same word or words irregularly in the same passage.
Sim'-i-le; or, Resemblance
A declaration that one thing resembles another. (Compare Metaphor,
Sim'-ul-ta'-ne-um; or Insertion
A kind of historical parenthesis, an event being put out of its historical
place between two others which are simultaneous.
Syl-leps'-is; or, Combination
The repetition of the sense without the repetition of the word.
Syl-leps'-is; or, Change in Concord
A change in the grammatical concord in favour of a logical concord.
Syl'-lo-gis'-mus; or, Omission of the Conclusion
The conclusion, though implied, is unexpressed, in order to add emphasis to
A material object substituted for a moral, or spiritual truth.
Sym'-per-as'-ma; or, Concluding Summary
When what has been said is briefly summed up.
Sym'-plo-ke; or, Interwining
The repetition of different words in successive sentences in the same order
and the same sense.
Syn'-ath-roes'-mos; or, Enumeration
The enumeration of the parts of a whole which has not been mentioned.
Syn'-cho-re'-sis; or, Concession
Making a concession of one point in order to gain another.
Syn'-cri-sis; or, Repeated Simile
Repetition of a number of resemblances.
Syn-ec'-do-che; or, Transfer
The exchange of one idea for another associated idea.
- The members of the human body (Genesis 48:
Of the Species. When the species is put for the genus, or particulars
for universals (Genesis 3:19.
Of the Whole. When the whole is put for a part (Genesis 6:12).
Of the Part. When a part is put for the whole (Genesis 3:19.
Syn'-oe-cei-o'-sis; or, Cohabitation
The repetition of the same word in the same sentence with an extended meaning.
Syn-o-ny-mi-a; or, Synonymous Words
The repetition of words similar in sense, but different in sound and origin.
Syn'-the-ton; or, Combination
A placing together of two words by usage.
Ta-pei-no'-sis; or, Demeaning
The lessoning of a thing in order to increase and intensify that same thing.
Thau-mas'-mos; or, Wondering
An expression of feeling by way of wonder.
Tme'-sis; or, Mid-Cut
A change by which one word is cut in two, and another word put in between.
Top'-o-graph'-i-a; or, Description of Place
Throwing light on the subject dealt with by alluding to locality.
A figure or ensample of something future, and more or less prophetic, called
Zeug'-ma; or, Unequal Yoke
When one verb is yoked on to two subjects, while grammatically a second
verb is required.
- Of the Genus. When the genus is put for the species, or universals for
particulars (Genesis 6:
Meso-zeugma, or, Middle yoke (Luke 1:64).
Hypo-zeugma, or End yoke (Acts 4:27,28).
Syne-zeugmenon, or, Joint yoke (Exodus 20:18).
- Proto-zeugma, or, Ante-yoke or Fore-yoke (Genesis 4: