Sin, Trespass, Iniquity, etc.
This Is Appendix
44 From The Companion Bible.
are many synonymous words to represent the outworking of man's fallen nature. As
these are not always translated by the same English word, it is necessary that
we should distinguish them. The student, by reference to the following list,
will be able to do so :-
chat'a, to sin; to miss the mark (as in Judges
Also of the feet, to stumble and fall (Proverbs
Hence, morally, a coming short, blameworthiness-not necessarily
wilful. An act of thought, word, or deed, not a condition. Usually (but by no
means always) rendered sin, and other words also so rendered.
- 'asham, trespass, to sin through error or
ignorance. Compare Leviticus 4:13;
'Asham is a breach of commandment, done in ignorance, but, when
the guilt is proved, requiring atonement.
- 'aven, iniquity, specially connected with idolatry. Used
because an idol is nothing and vanity (compare Hosea 4:15;
marg.). Hence, 'aven comes to mean vanity (compare
etc.). The word has many renderings, which are pointed out in the passages
when it occurs. 'Aven is rather a course of bad conduct flowing
from the evil desires of fallen nature, than breaches of the law as such.
- 'avah, perverseness, from the root to be
bent, or crooked. English wrong that is to
say, wrung out of course, expresses it ( compare 1
- 'amal, trouble, labour, toil. Sin viewed in the
light of the trouble it causes; and of its burden and its grievousness
Often rendered perverseness (Numbers 23:21),
also mischief (Job 15:35).
- 'aval, unjust, unfairness, sin in its nature as deceitful,
dishonesty, that which is not equal and right, unfairness in dealings.
Rendered unjust (Psalm 43:1;
unrighteous (Leviticus 19:15,
- 'abar, to pass beyond, transgress. Hence, transgression
- ra'a', wicked, injurious. From its root, which
indicates its nature as breaking up all that is good or
disirable; injurious to all others. In Greek poneros, evil, or kakos,
bad. Hence especially of moral depravity and corruption, and lewdness.
English "good-for-nothing" (1
- pash'a, revolt, rebellion. Sin against lawful
authority. Often rendered transgression (Psalm 51:13.
In Proverbs 10:12
the action of love or mercy shown stands in strong contrast to this character
of the sin.
- rasha', wickedness, in the sense of the restless
activity of fallen nature (Job 3:17.
where it refers to the activity of the impious and ungodly, or robbers.
- ma'al, treachery, unfaithfulness, breach of trust,
often rendered trespass and transgression. It is used of Achan (Joshua 7:1;
Compare Joshua 22:16.
- shagag, erring from imprudence, rashness, being deceived, not
wilfully; and shagah, erring wilfully through passion or wine, hence, to
go astray. As sin it is to be distinguished from presumptuous or
high-handed sin. Compare Leviticus 4:13.
etc., with Numbers 15:30.
- zimmah, meditated wickedness, plotted, planned,
and designed; wicked, or lewd purpose, especially of sins of unchastity.
- chasad = shameful. A Homonym, meaning (1) Here,
and Job 37:13
(where it is rendered "mercy" in Authorized Version
and Revised Version). But "lightning" is not "mercy",
but chastisement. (2) The other meaning is mercy, lovingkindness,
or grace. See note on Leviticus
- shal, fault, commited inadvertently through